WyzGuys Computer and Network Support
 Computer SupportWeb ServicesInternet E-MailComputer TrainingWeb LogLinkedIn
Home
About Us
What We Do
Contact Us
Blog Feed
Computer Hardware
Support Services
Support Plans
Cybersecurity
Data Protection
Software Sales and Support
Professional Associations
Reference Desk
Read My Blog on BloggerMy LinkedIn ProfileBecome A Fan on FacebookFollow Me on Twitter
WyzGuys Computer Support on LinkedIn 
 
BNI Logo
Read Unbiased Consumer Reviews Online at AngiesList.com
Angie's List
Computer Repair in St. Paul

Dell Registered Partner

AVG Silver Reseller

Comcast Business Class Authorized Connector

 
 
 

 



Computer and Network Reference

The following information is provided as a free informational service on a variety of Information Technology subjects.  Click on the subject heading below to expand list of subject matter.


Start a continuous PING command

Start->Run->CMD->enter
ping 192.168.1.254 –t   (ping xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx  -t)

 

Comparison of the OSI and DOD models

DOD ModelOSI Model Network Protocols
   
Process / ApplicationApplication Telnet, FTP, SMTP, FTAM (File Transfer, Access, and Management), VTP (Virtual Terminal Protocol),CMID (Common Management and Information Protocol
Presentation ASCII, EBCDIC, JPEG, GIF, TIFF, MPEG, WAV
Session RPC, ZIP (Zone Information Protocol), SCP (Session Control Protocol)
Host to HostTransport TCP, UDP, SPX, NBP (Name Binding Protocol)
InternetNetwork IP, ICMP, IGRP, IPv6, GRE, IPX in IP, L2TP, ARP, RARP, Ping, Tracert, IPX, BGP, OSPF, RIP
Network AccessDatalinkLogical Link Control (LLC)LayerLAN - Ethernet (802.3), Fast Ethernet, Token Ring (802.5), Wi-Fi (802.11), FDDI
WAN -Frame Relay, ATM, LAP, LAPB (Link Access Procedure, Balanced), SDLC(Synchronous Data Link Control), PPP, SMDS, SIP
Media Access Control (MAC) LayerMAC (hardware) addressing
Physical Electrical (Copper), Optical (Fiber), Radio (Air), Photonic (Light, Laser)

back to top


Memory Chart
TypeSpeedBus Speed
DDRPC2100266Mhz133MHz
DDRPC2700333MHz166MHz
DDRPC3200400MHz200MHz
DDRPC3500433MHz216MHz
DDRPC3700466MHz233MHz
DDRPC4000500MHz250MHz
DDRPC4200533MHz266MHz
DDRPC4400550MHz275MHz
DDRPC4500566MHz283MHz
DDRPC4800600MHz300MHz
DDRPC5000625MHz313MHz
DDR2PC2-4200533MHz266MHz
DDR2PC2-5400667MHz333MHz
DDR2PC2-6000750MHz375MHz
DDR2PC2-6400800MHz400MHz
DDR2PC2-80001000MHz500MHz
DDR2PC2-88001100MHz550MHz
DDR2PC2-90001120MHz560MHz
DDR3PC3-6400800MHz400MHz
DDR3PC3-85001066MHz533MHz
DDR3PC3-106661333MHz667MHz
DDR3PC3-128001600MHz800MHz
DDR3PC3-144001800MHz900MHz
DDR3PC3-160002000MHz1000MHz
back to top

IEEE 802 Working Groups and Networking Protocols

StandardNameDescriptionStatus
   
802.1 Higher Layer LAN Protocols Working GroupActive
802.2NovellLogical Link Control Working GroupInactive
802.3EthernetEthernet Working GroupActive
802.4 Token Bus Working GroupInactive
802.5Token RingToken Ring Working GroupInactive
802.6 Metropolitan Area Network Working GroupDisbanded
802.7 Broadband TAGDisbanded
802.8 Fiber Optic TAGDisbanded
802.9 Isochronous LAN Working GroupInactive
802.10 Security Working GroupInactive
802.11Wi-FiWireless LAN Working GroupActive
802.12 Demand Priority Working GroupInactive
802.14 Cable Modem Working Group (Temporarily housed off-site)Disbanded
802.15 Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN) Working GroupActive
802.16 Broadband Wireless Access Working GroupActive
802.17 Resilient Packet Ring Working GroupActive
802.18 Radio Regulatory TAGActive
802.19 Coexistence TAGActive
802.20 Mobile Broadband Wireless Access (MBWA) Working GroupActive

back to top


Windows Name Resolution

WINSNETBIOS
Local NetBIOS Name CacheLocal Host Name
WINS ServerHOSTS Files
B-Node BroadcastDNS
LMHOSTS File 

back to top


Windows Small Business Server 2003 Port Forwarding

For full functionality of SBS 2003 (SBS2003) Remote Web Workplace, forward the following ports at your router or firewall:

SMTP 25 - Simple Mail Transfer Protocol

HTTP 80 - Home Page Web

SSL 443 - Home Page Web Secured

HTTP2 444 - Second SSL Secured on alternate port for SharePoint

PPTP 1723 - VPN Connections

RDP 3389 - Remote Desktop Protocol (only needed for direct access, if using RWW website, only 4125 is needed)

RWW 4125 - Remote Web Workplace

Optional:

POP3 110 - If using POP3 mail connections

IMAP 143 - Good for iPhones (1st Generation)

IMAP SSL 993 - Even better for iPhones (1st Generation)


Cisco Router Configuration Cheat Sheet

NetworkingIEEECisco TermFrame Type
    
TCP/IP802.3arpaEthernet II
    
Novell   
Netware 3.11 or lower (default)802.3novell-etherEthernet 802.3
Netware 3.12 or higher802.2sapEthernet 802.2, Token Ring, FDDI 802.2
AppleTalk on TCP/IP802.2snapEthernet SNAP, Token Ring SNAP, FDDI SNAP
   
   
Address MappingTLAKnownUnknown
    
Address Resolution ProtocolARPIP,  Network, Logical, Layer 3MAC, Media Access Control, Hardware, Layer 2
Reverse Address Resolution ProtocolRARPMAC, Layer 2IP,  Network, Logical, Layer 3
    
   
Routing   
    
Static Routingip route [dest net] [mask] [next hop address (gateway)] [admin distance] [perm]
 ip route [dest net] [mask] [exit interface] [admin distance] [perm]
Distance Vector   
Routing Information ProtocolRIP  
Interior Gateway Routing ProtocolIGRP  
    
Link State   
Open Shortest Path FirstOSPF  
    
Hybrid (DV and LS)   
Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing ProtocolEIGRP  
    
Exterior Gateway Protocols   
Border Gateway ProtocolBGP  
   
Wildcard Masks   
    
255.255.255.255any  
0.0.0.0host  
    
Cisco IP Configuration Conventions   
    
Network address of all 0s means "this network or segment"
Network address of all 1s means "all networks"
    
Node address of all 0s means "this node"
Node address of all 1s means "all nodes"
    
Entire IP address set to all 0s is the Cisco default route
Entire IP address set to all 1s is the broadcast address for all nodes on the current network
    

back to top


TCP/IP Networking

IP Subnet Calculator http://www.subnet-calculator.com/

The IP Subnet Mask Calculator enables Subnet network calculations using network class, IP address, subnet mask, subnet bits, mask bits, maximum required IP subnets and maximum required hosts per subnet.

 

TCP IP Networking Guidelines

Class

Mask

Networks

Hosts Per Network

Range

A

B

C

Full Class

A

255.0.0.0

126

16.77 M

1.X.X.X -126.X.X.X

B

255.255.0.0

16K

65.5 K

128.X.X.X - 191.X.X.X

C

255.255.255.0

2M

254

192.X.X.X - 223.X.X.X

D

Multicasting

224.X.X.X-239.X.X.X

E

Scientific

240.X.X.X-255.X.X.X

Testing

127.X.X.X

Loopback

127.1.1.1

Non-Routable Private

A

255.0.0.0

1

16.77 M

10.0.0.0 - 10.255.255.255

B

255.255.0.0

16

65.5 K

172.16.0.0 -172.31.255.255

APIPA

255.255.0.0

16

65.5K

168.294.0.0 - 168.294.255.255

C

255.255.255.0

255

254

192.168.0.0 - 192.168.255.255

Basic Subnetting 

Binary

Interval

Mask

Networks

Hosts Per Network 

A

B

C

00000000

254

.0

1

16.77 M

65.5 K

254

+ 1 Broadcast (.255)
+ 1 Network Base (.0)

10000000

128

.128

0.5

8 M

32 K

124

11000000

64

.192

2

4.2 M

16,382

62

11100000

32

.224

6

2.1 M

8190

30

11110000

16

.240

14

1.05 M

4094

14

11111000

8

.248

30

524 K

2046

6

11111100

4

.252

62

262 K

1022

2

11111110

2

.254

126

131 K

510

0

Invalid Class C Subnet
(No Hosts)

11111111

1

.255

254

65.5 K

254

1

Class C Host Route
(Dial-Up Networking)

back to top

Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) And Subnetting

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CIDR Suffix

# of Class C Networks

Interval

Mask

Total  C Subnets

Total  B Subnets

Total A Subnets

Total  Hosts

 

 

/32

1/256

1

255.255.255.255

1

Class C Host Route
(Dial-Up Networking)

/31

1/128

2

255.255.255.254

126

32,766

8,388,606

NA

Invalid Subnet

/30

1/64

4

255.255.255.252

62

16,382

4,194,302

2

 

/29

1/32

8

255.255.255.248

30

8,190

2,097,150

6

 

/28

1/16

16

255.255.255.240

14

4,094

1,048,574

14

 

/27

1/8

32

255.255.255.224

6

2,046

524,286

30

 

/26

1/4

64

255.255.255.192

2

1,022

262,142

62

 

/25

1/2

128

255.255.255.128

NA

510

131,070

126

Invalid Class C Subnet

/24

1

1

255.255.255.0

1

254

65,534

254

Full Class C

/23

2

2

255.255.254.0

126

32,766

510

 

/22

4

4

255.255.252.0

62

16,382

1,022

 

/21

8

8

255.255.248.0

30

8,190

2,046

 

/20

16

16

255.255.240.0

14

4,094

4,094

 

/19

32

32

255.255.224.0

6

2,046

8,190

 

/18

64

64

255.255.192.0

2

1,022

16,382

 

/17

128

128

255.255.128.0

NA

510

32,766

Invalid Class B Subnet

/16

256

1

255.255.0.0

1

254

65,534

Full Class B

/15

512

2

255.254.0.0

126

131,070

 

/14

1024

4

255.252.0.0

62

262,142

 

/13

2048

8

255.248.0.0

30

524,286

 

/12

4096

16

255.240.0.0

14

1,048,574

 

/11

8192

32

255.224.0.0

6

2,097,150

 

/10

16384

64

255.192.0.0

2

4,194,302

 

/9

32768

128

255.128.0.0

NA

8,388,606

Invalid Class A Subnet

255.0.0.0

1

16,777,214

Full Class A

 

Subnettting Considerations

Total Sub-Network IDs = 1 per subnet + 1 per WAN Link

Total Host IDs = 1 per host + 1 per router interface

1 Subnet Mask for entire network + 1 unique subnet ID for each physical segment + range of host IDs for each subnet

back to top


Well Known Ports

The port numbers are divided into three ranges: the Well Known Ports, the Registered Ports, and the Dynamic and/or Private Ports. 
     
The Well Known Ports are those from 0 through 1023. 
The Registered Ports are those from 1024 through 49151 
The Dynamic and/or Private Ports are those from 49152 through 65535 
    
Port NumberTypeNameDescriptionSecurity Concerns
1 TCPMUXTCP Port Service Multiplexer 
5 RJERemote Job Entry 
7 PING/TRACERTICMP ECHO - Packet Internet Groper and Trace RouteBlock from Internet
13 DaytimeNetwork Time Sync with Atomic Clock 
18 MSPMessage Send Protocol 
20 FTP-DataFile Transfer ProtocolSecure
21 FTP-ControlFile Transfer ProtocolSecure
22 SSHSecure Shell Remote Login Protocol 
23 TelnetTelnetSecure
25 SMTPSimple Mail Transfer ProtocolBlock Relay
29 MSG ICP  
37 TIMETime 
42 NameservHost Name Server 
43 WhoisWhoIs 
49 LoginLogin Host Protocol 
53 DNSDomain Name SystemSecure
67 BootP-ServerOutgoing DHCPBlock
68 BootP-ClientIncoming DHCP 
69 TFTPTFTP - Trivial File Transfer Protocol 
70 GopherGopher 
79 FingerFinger 
80 HTTPHTTP 
88 KerberosSecure Encrypted Login 
103 X.400X.400 
108 SNASNA Gateway Access Server 
109 POP2Post Office Protocol 
110 POP3Post Office Protocol 
115 SFTPSimple File Transfer Protocol 
118 SQLSQL Services 
119 NNTPNetwork News Transfer Protocol 
135BothNetBIOSDCE Endpoint MapperBlock
137BothNetBIOSNetBIOS Name ServiceBlock
138BothNetBIOSNetBIOS Datagram ServiceBlock
139BothNetBIOSNetBIOS Session ServiceBlock
143 IMAPInternet Message Access Protocol 
150 NetBIOSNetBIOS Session Service 
156 SQLSQL Server 
161 SNMPSNMP - Simple Network Management Protocol 
179 BGPBGP - Border Gateway Protocol 
190 GACPGateway Access Control Protocol (GACP) 
194 IRCIRC - Internet Relay Chat 
197 DLSDirectory Location Service (DLS) 
213 IPXNovell Netware  
389 LDAPLDAP - Lightweight Directory Access Protocol 
396  Novell Netware over IP 
443 HTTPSHTTP over TLS/SSLEnable only if required - otherwise BLOCK
444 SNPPSimple Network Paging Protocol (SNPP) 
445  Microsoft-DSBlock
458  Apple Quick Time 
546 DHCPv6DHCP version 6 Client 
547 DHCPv6DHCP version 6 Server 
563 NTTPSNetwork News Transfer Protocol over TLS/SSL 
569  MSN 
636 LDAPSLDAP over TLS/SSL 
989 FTPS-DATAFTP Data over TLS/SSL 
990 FTPSFTP Control over TLS/SSL 
992 TenetSTelnet over TLS/SSL 
993 IMAP4SIMAP over SSL 
994 IRCSIRC over TLS/SSL 
995 POP3SPost Office Protocol 3 over TLS/SSL 
     
     
Private Ports    
1080  Socks 
1512BothWINSWindows Internet Naming Service 
   INSTANT MESSAGING PORTS 
4443TCPAIMAOLBlock or Permit
5190TCPAIMAOLBlock or Permit
3574TCPICQ Block or Permit
4000UDPICQ Block or Permit
4001UDPICQ Block or Permit
5190TCPICQ Block or Permit
7320TCPICQ Block or Permit
1503TCPMSNMSN MessengerBlock or Permit
1863TCPMSNMSN MessengerBlock or Permit
6891TCPMSNMSN MessengerBlock or Permit
13324UDPMSNMSN MessengerBlock or Permit
13325UDPMSNMSN MessengerBlock or Permit
5010TCPYahoo Block or Permit
     

Click this link for to be directed to a comprehensive port number list on the IANA web site.

back to top


IRQs

IRQDEVICEPORT
   
0Timer 
1Keyboard 
2Video Adapter (maybe be redirected to 9) 
3Serial Port COM2 or COM4 (available)2F8
4COM1 or COM33F8
5LPT2 (available)278
6Floppy Disk Controller 
7LPT1 (Parallel Port)378
8Real-Time Clock 
9Redirected IRQ2 (available) 
10Available 
11Available 
12PS2 Mouse (available) 
13Math Coprocessor 
14Hard Disk Controller 
15Available 

back to top


Ethernet Wiring

PinStraight 568B568A Cross-Over Phone
     
1Orange WhiteGreen WhiteBrownBrown White
     
2OrangeGreenBrown WhiteGreen White
     
3Green WhiteOrange WhiteGreen Orange White
     
4BlueBlueBlue WhiteBlue
     
5Blue WhiteBlue WhiteBlueBlue White
     
6GreenOrangeGreen WhiteOrange
     
7Brown WhiteBrown WhiteOrangeGreen
     
8BrownBrownOrange WhiteBrown

568A vs. 568B. Which should you use?

There are two accepted standards for 8-wire data network jacks (commonly and incorrectly called "RJ-45.")

ANSI/TIA/EIA-568-B "Commercial Building Telecommunications Cabling Standard" lists both wiring configurations. T568B is the most prevalent for commercial installations, and was used by AT&T for the original Merlin phone systems. To help you remember, associate "B" with "Bell."

ANSI/TIA/EIA-570-B "Residential Telecommunications Cabling Standards" recommends T568A

If the installation is residential, choose T568A unless other conditions apply (see below).

  • The two inner pairs of 568A are wired the same as a two-line phone jack.
  • If there is pre-existing voice/data wiring (remodel, moves, adds, changes), duplicate this wiring scheme on any new connection.
  • If project specifications are available, use the specified wiring configuration.
  • If components used within the project are internally wired for either T568A or T568B, use that wiring scheme. Make sure both ends of a cable are wired the same way.


Thanks to phonegeeks.com

25-pair cable color codes for punch-down blocks & connectors


T1/E1 Crossover Cable

T1 Wiring Diagram

 

back to top

Thanks, ESR

The name WyzGuys and the logo are trademarks and service marks of WyzCo Group LLC
Copyright 2001-2009 by the WyzCo Group LLC
Web Site Designed and Hosted by
WyzHost Web Services